- Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and Magnetic Resonance Venography (MRV)
- Flow and MRI
- Material and methods
- 3D contrast MR angiography - Martin R. Prince, Thomas M. Grist, Jörg F. Debatin - Google книги
MR is unable to visualize and detect the calcified aspect of the plaque where MRA is unable to identify its thrombotic component. In order to characterize the plaque, Spin Echo T1 and T2 sequences are necessary but they could only detect thrombotic plaque [ 15 ]. On the contrary CE MRA utilizes T1 sequences with reduction of signal of the stationary tissues and, therefore, of the thrombotic component. Besides improved diagnostic accuracy, another advantage of CE MRA is the overall visualization of the epiaortic vessels, from the aortic arch to intracranial vasculature, in a coronal plane.
This important characteristic permits to detect in the same acquisition time, lesions localized in different vascular districts tandem lesions. Tandem lesions are not visualized in the same angiogram with conventional MRA and this represents one of the major drawbacks of the technique.
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An important problem of CE MRA is the choice of the optimal delay time of injection of contrast medium. The pre-test Fast 2D sequence with preliminary bolus of contrast medium may be helpful to identify the correct delay time. Unfortunately, even if the correct delay time has been chosen, the relatively long acquisition time of Fast 3D sequence more than 30 seconds may visualize venous vessels overlapping carotid arteries. Recent introduction of softwares that permit the automatic choice of correct delay time and the use of ultrafast 3D sequences may represent the definitive answer to this problem, but these solutions are still not diffused and they are not available on all magnets.
The vascular imaging is similar in both methods. Assessment of carotid artery stenosis by MR Angiography. Approaches to diagnostic Magnetic Resonnance carotid Angiography. Carotid Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Neurovascular imaging. Magnetic Resonnance Angiography of the carotid artery combining two and three dimensional acquisition.
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- 3D Contrast MR Angiography | Martin R. Prince | Springer.
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Breath-hold, contrast-enhanced, three dimensional MR angiography. Arterial-phase three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR Angiography of the carotid arteries. Breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced MR Angiography of the abdominal aorta and its major branches. Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high grade carotid stenosis. S, Magarelli N et al. Carriero A, Armillotta M et al.solr.hoppingo.com/2819.php
Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and Magnetic Resonance Venography (MRV)
Spiral CT angiography in the study of carotid stenosis. Journal page Archives Sommaire. Access to the text HTML. Access to the PDF text If you experience reading problems with Firefox, please follow this procedure. Recommend this article. Save as favorites. Free Article! Methods and material We studied 23 patients with suspected cerebro-vascular insufficiency by carotid stenosis.
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Flow and MRI
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Material and methods
By disabling cookies, you may not view Vimeo videos. The website can not function properly without these cookies. Verify now. Toggle navigation. Keep me signed in. Forgot your password? Sign in with Facebook. Learning objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able: To describe the different flow phenomena in MRI Explain the principle of flow compensation gradients Present non-contrast magnetic resonance angiography methods technique, results, advantages and disadvantages: Time-of-flight TOF MRA Phase contrast PCA MRA 3D MRA with ultrafast spin echo and ECG synchronization FBI Describe the Contrast-enhanced MRA technique, its constraints related to the injection of a contrast agent, and its advantages Key points Flow and MRI Phenomena associated with flow in MRI The inflow effect: flow of nonsaturated blood into the explored zone vascular hypersignal The outflow effect: the excited blood flows out of the explored zone loss of vascular signal Dephasing of moving spins in a gradient This last phenomenon, used in phase contrast MRA, produces artifacts in the other imaging methods.
Exploration of large volumes, Turbulent flow imaging Risks and drawbacks of injection References Ozsarlak, Van Goethem. MR angiography of the intracranial vessels: technical aspects and clinical applications.
3D contrast MR angiography - Martin R. Prince, Thomas M. Grist, Jörg F. Debatin - Google книги
Miyazaki, Sugiura. J Magn Reson Imaging. Zhang, Maki.
Gauvrit, Trystram. Journal de radiologie.